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Archive for 2009 年 05 月

己丑年五月初五

之一

昨天又帶著學生作腦波實驗,繼續有新發現,腦波居然如預期一般「乖乖排列」,真是出乎意料之外!(未免也太準了,太乖了)
科學研究的令人興奮之處,往往不是後來的成果發表,而是靈光乍現與猜測獲得證實的一剎那……
因為要作實驗,我也無法臨時參與另一個行政工作,真是「顧人怨」。沒辦法,我的事情是原本就安排好的。

之二

我最近成了《大長今》的忠實戲迷,劇中年長而慈祥的鄭尚宮過世了,而在真實世界中,該演員呂運計也於5/22過世了,令人不勝唏噓。
《大長今》的魅力真是驚人,許多人的演技都達到一種罕見的高峰,很有味兒。劇本與配樂堪稱一流,讓我咀嚼再三。(怎麼能夠作到這麼棒?!)

之三

日前看到一段敘述,深獲我心:

各校因為邁頂計畫的關係,紛紛專注在國際化上面的追求,但這方面的成果往往是虛的,並不能使我們達到頂尖,反而使我們忽略了內部的橫向連結。

不管上面這句話是誰說的、在什麼情形下說的,有識者還是可以「就事論事」,針對這個意見本身來討論。
真的該好好檢討了!學生也曾經問我:台大搞「國際化」到底是為了什麼?
學生的口吻不禁讓我想到「國王的新衣」,果然一派天真。

比較擅長國際交流(也對此懷有濃厚興趣)的人,就努力去作吧。但校園內還是應該容許一些有志於「橫向連結」的人,默默耕耘「跨領域」的艱難大業。

之四

今天在紅樹林步道散步,驚訝地發現遍野的牽牛花,以及不知名的小黃花,還有為數不少的蜜蜂辛勤工作。
我花了一點時間觀察蜜蜂,仍然不知道牠們有沒有順利地採到花蜜。

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紅樹林的水鳥

前一陣子趁著夕陽走過紅樹林
看到水鳥們望水佇立
覺得有趣
就用相機拍了下來
後來發現居然有點像水墨畫
因此貼上來灌水一下
(此圖放大之後特別有趣)

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CIM10 Nature versus Culture, 21st – 24th July 2010, University of Sheffield, UK

CALL FOR PAPERS

The Conferences on Interdisciplinary Musicology promote collaborations between sciences and humanities, between theory and practice, as well as interdisciplinary combinations that are new, unusual, creative, or otherwise especially promising. CIM10 will focus on the relationship between nature and culture in musical behaviour, thinking and sound.

With the influence of evolutionary theory, and the interpenetration of the approaches and methods of the sciences and arts, researchers from many different fields have become interested in how culture and biology shape musical phenomena. To what extent is the music that gets made (its materials and structure) a direct product of physical and biological properties? How is the experience of music governed by biological mechanisms and cultural processes?

The conference aims to bring together representatives of the arts and humanities, the sciences, and musical practice who are involved in research on culture and nature in music. Researchers from all relevant disciplines are invited to contribute theoretical, empirical and computational studies.

The following topic areas illustrate the scope of the conference theme:

• Music’s evolutionary origins

• Cross-cultural comparison of musical phenomena

• Linguistic influences on music cognition

• How culture and biology shape the phenomenal experience of musical expectation

• Biological and cultural influences on the experience of emotions with music

• Relationship between emotional experience with music and emotions in daily life

• Development of musical skills

• Musical universals and musical specializations

• Cognitive and physical constraints shaping musical materials and compositional practices

Submissions are encouraged that are related to these sub-areas or the general theme of nature versus culture.

Submission details:

In keeping with the aim of CIM to promote interaction between disciplines, each submission must have at least two authors who represent different disciplines. Extended abstracts should be structured in the following seven headlines:

1. Background in the first discipline

2. Background in the second discipline

3. Aims

4. Main Contribution

5. Implications for musical practice

6. Implications for musicological interdisciplinarity

7. References

In empirical and computational contributions, the “main contribution” should include a summary of method and results. Each submitted abstract should be followed by a short biography (CV) of the (first) two authors. The whole file should not exceed 1000 words, including all headings, names of authors, their affiliations, email addresses and biographies. The preferred format of the presentation (talk or poster) should also be indicated. All submissions must address the conference theme. Abstracts should be submitted in English either as plain text or in an attached document (MS Word). They will be reviewed anonymously by a panel of international experts.

Deadline: 15th of September 2009

E-mail submissions to: CIM10@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Further information from: http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/cim10/index.html

CIM10 is directed by:

Dr Nicola Dibben, and Dr Renee Timmers, Department of Music, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

CIM10 is presented in collaboration with the European Society for Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM), and the Society for Education, Psychology and Music Research (SEMPRE).

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最近看到國科會網站上有個訊息:

一、鑒於腦部活動在理解人類心智功能的角色日益重要,並已成為國際人文與社會科學學術研究不可忽視的趨勢,為使國內人文與社會科學之學術研究能與國際趨勢同步,本會人文處擬建置人類腦部核磁共振造影設備(Magnetic Resonance Imaging system for human brain, 簡稱MRI )與人腦磁波儀(Magnetoencephalogram instrument for human brain,簡稱MEG)等儀器,以充實國內人文與社會科學相關研究所需之儀器設備,提升國內人文與社會科學之學術水準。
二、本項儀器建置與服務計畫(以下簡稱本計畫)將開放申請,申請截止時間為98年9月18日。有意提出申請之機構,應至本會研究人才個人網專題研究計畫線上申辦系統製作並繳交計畫書及相關文件後,由申請機構造具申請名冊一式二份於申請截止日前函送本會申請。
三、本會將經審查程序遴選執行機構。未來執行機構須負責前述儀器的建置,亦應於儀器建置完成後,提供全國人文與社會科學相關領域之研究者共同使用,並進行相關的人才培育工作。執行機構亦可視其能量規劃進行具前瞻性、創新性的研究議題,並廣納相關領域的學者參與,以帶動國內此領域的研究發展或建立研究用資料庫。

心智科學大型研究設備建置計畫徵求公告.PDF

看來人文社會學科似乎有「反客為主」、「易守為攻」的企圖,也就是說,隨著自然科學家「入侵」人文社會學科,人文社會學者也反過來學習一點神經科學、購買儀器,從事跨領域的研究——這不就是我這幾年來最感興趣的事情嗎?

剛剛查了一下有關信仰的神經科學論文,已經半年以上沒有查這類的論文了,發現兩篇好玩的:


韓世輝 et al. (2008). Neural consequences of religious belief on self-referential processing. Soc Neurosci. 3(1):1-15.

Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Christianity strongly encourages its believers to surrender to God and to judge the self from God’s perspective. We used functional MRI to assess whether this religious belief is associated with neural correlates of self-referential processing distinct from that of non-religious people. Non-religious and Christian participants were scanned while performing tasks of personal-trait judgments regarding the self or public persons. We found that, while self-judgment was linked to better memory of traits related to the self than to others, self-referential processing induced increased activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) for non-religious participants but in the dorsal MPFC for Christian participants. In addition, the dorsal MPFC activity was positively correlated with the rating scores of the importance of Jesus’ judgment in subjective evaluation of a person’s personality. Because the ventral and dorsal MPFC are respectively engaged in representation of stimulus self-relevance and evaluation of self-referential stimuli, our findings suggest that Christian beliefs result in weakened neural coding of stimulus self-relatedness but enhanced neural activity underlying evaluative processes applied to self-referential stimuli.


Schjoedt U, Stødkilde-Jørgensen H, Geertz AW, Roepstorff A. (2009). Highly religious participants recruit areas of social cognition in personal prayer. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2009 Feb 25. [Epub ahead of print]

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how performing formalized and improvised forms of praying changed the evoked BOLD response in a group of Danish Christians. Distinct from formalized praying and secular controls, improvised praying activated a strong response in the temporopolar region, the medial prefrontal cortex, the temporo-parietal junction and precuneus. This finding supports our hypothesis that religious subjects, who consider their God to be ‘real’ and capable of reciprocating requests, recruit areas of social cognition when they pray. We argue that praying to God is an intersubjective experience comparable to ‘normal’ interpersonal interaction.


我覺得MPFC真是很奧妙,爵士鋼琴即興時,它的活化也會增加!

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教學相長,真是一點兒也沒錯。由於最近難得有機會教必修課,因此「逼出」了我的一些回應,順便整理一下思緒,倒也清楚。

My educational philosophy:

1) One of the purposes of education is to learn how to think logically (instead of critically).

Don’t criticize just for the sake of doing so. 不需要「為反對而反對」

2) Agree/disagree/comment through careful reasoning.

A. Einstein: 「自然」最不可思議的特質之一,就是「自然是可以理解的」。

3) 有些懷抱後現代解構思想的人文學者覺得,「自然科學跟其他的人類活動一樣,也只是學者們主觀建構出來的」。對於這種說法,可以怎樣應對?

一個大學生坐飛機去旅遊,剛好旁邊坐了一位活潑多言文化論者。

該學者表示:我要去參加一個研討會,我們主張:Science 跟其他的知識一樣,都只是學者的主觀詮釋。你看那窗外的月亮,其「存在」也只是科學家的詮釋

大學生說:這架飛機或許能夠準時抵達目的地,不會飛到一半掉下來,這也是一種「主觀詮釋」?那你為什麼信任這架飛機?

A. Einstein: 在漫長的一生,我學到了一件事:一切科學,和現實相較可說是既原始又幼稚,但它卻是我們所擁有最珍貴的東西。

4) 關於文化差異的研究議題,自然科學方法也派得上用場,參見

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Jared Diamond: Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

社會生物學

從現代生物學看人類行為(本校的通識課足以讓文科的學生知道「別的學院在做什麼」,原來傳統文科的地盤正被入侵,科學家也在研究文化與音樂)。

5) 研究歷史或詮釋文化時,「想太多」不一定就贏。

江戶川柯南:真相只有一個

6) 學術需要本土化,特別是社會人文學科。

莊子:宋人資章甫而適越,越人斷髮文身,無所用之。(逍遙遊)

Adaptation(適應): an organism becomes better suited to its habitat.

7) 重視研究材料的特質靈活運用習得的理論,自創理論也可以

風清揚:是「人使劍招」,不是「劍招使人」

8) 關於 applied musicology

高涌泉:有用的東西不一定對,對的東西不一定有用

蔡振家:另外有些東西「不一定對,也沒有用」

9) 從大學到碩士班,學生的任務之一是「找到自己在社會中的位置」。

念碩士不是念博士,請在三年之內畢業!

A. Einstein: 科學研究只是在木板上找最薄的地方鑽洞

10) 碩士論文只是「獨立研究的一個練習,重點是練習的過程,不是該論文的學術貢獻。

在正常情形下,碩士論文不會被正式學術著作所引用(例外:該研究領域剛剛起步)。

博士論文會被正式學術著作所引用(從博士論文開始,研究結果比過程重要得多)。

11) Don’t simply believe my philosophy.

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向心理學家學習

上週在短短四天之內,我就到台大心理系三次,參加不同的活動——跟心理學家的緣份著實不淺哪!

第一個活動是去聽一位聽覺專家謝博士的演講,她具有絕對音感,因此做了一些這方面的研究,此外她還介紹了「雙耳聽音辨位」的研究,演講內容極為豐富,讓我滿載而歸。

第二個活動是「情緒標準刺激與反應常模的基礎研究」的會議,這個大型計畫研究許多不同形式的刺激,包括音樂刺激的情緒特性。我覺得最「刺激」的是學到分析笑話的理論,真的很有用,也讓我領悟到「人類會笑」這件事有著深刻的意義,裡頭大有文章。我私下跟研究笑話的心理學家討論了一番,頗有相見恨晚之感。

「請問您的 schema shift 理論除了用來研究笑話之外,有沒有拿來研究禪宗的公案?」
「對對對,schema shift 很適合研究禪宗的公案!」
「我也覺得超像的——雖然公案並不好笑。」我腦中馬上浮現起在碩士班聽風清揚大俠講解公案的情景。

第三個活動是參加 Workshop on Multisensory Processing and Attention,主講者是Professor Charles Spence (Crossmodal Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK)。令我印象深刻的一個觀點是:整合來自不同感官的訊息,並非高等動物所獨有的能力,而是許多動物都有的能力,而且「演化上較古老」的腦區如 superior colliculus 就已經在處理跨感官的訊息整合了。我一直在想,大學裡面各個學院壁壘分明,跨領域的交流情形簡直連低等動物都不如,除了通識課像是較低階的 superior colliculus 之外,跨領域的交流在學術前沿還是較少發生,反之,人類的大腦有許多「演化上較新」的區域都在作跨感官的訊息整合,可以說是相當高階的處理。

視聽訊息整合是個較熱門的領域,但主講者有一個觀點我不太同意,他提到「視覺與聽覺訊息互相牴觸時,兩者之中較強勢的訊息決定我們的最終知覺」

Intersensory conflict = Sensory dominance

我馬上想到一些電影配樂的例子,有些配樂跟畫面十分矛盾,進而產生一些新穎的效果(例:人魔沾血的手配上《郭德堡變奏曲》的平靜音樂),這就不是 sensory dominance 可以涵蓋的了。

上述的第二、第三個活動都牽涉到電影配樂與情緒認知的問題,當我看到音樂學界也在處理這類問題時,恰好有機會聽聽心理學家的說法,兩種不同的路數 (approach) 相互參照,不亦樂乎!

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